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Глютен, безглютеновое питание

Амарант - доступная культура будущего


Эссе о хлебе на англ. яз.

Essay on the bread  

(Оригинал статьи  на русском языке вы можете прочитать немного ниже этого не очень удачного машинного английского перевода!  После краткого фрагмента из эссе о хлебе.)

Medical certificate: "... the Gluten contained in the product that is formed from the flour of grains after separation of starch. This residual product is a mixture of many proteins which differ in their solubility and the possibility of extraction. In different cereals this component has a different name: wheat – gluten (gliadin), oats, Avenyn, in the barley – hordein, in the rye – seklinin.

  God and the devil, light and darkness, life and death, and hunger are classic examples of the law of unity and struggle of opposites, one of the most important laws of the universe.
I dedicate this essay to the bread, the symbol of prosperity, namely, its main component – wheat. The grain, which gives strength and life, but as it turned out today, gradually carrying the disease and premature death. The effect of Pandora's box is an effect from eating the bread.


"A great scientific idea rarely intrudes by the way of gradual conviction and conversion of its opponents. The reality is that the opponents gradually die out and the growing generation from the very beginning developed with a new idea."

                                          Max Planck


Somewhere in the late 70-ies in the newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" published an article by V. Peskov about problems in the hunting economy for the party elite. He described in this article, the event of sudden epizootic among moose in one such household at the beginning of the summer. Moose died not ones, though they were not depleted (all the same Specocenka throughout the winter and spring, so that the animals were well-fed, when the party bosses will take them on the fly!). Research on the alleged diversion by tossing poison or some unknown illness

also not yielded any result. It was then that I realized that maybe to blame just feeding. For it the that winter, often used the plant food in the form of hay and bread!
And, although it was initially unclear how the bread (a Holy concept!) was the reason for the death of so many animals, given the importance of the problem, understood!
The fact that the diet of moose includes all the mushrooms. In winter, mushrooms in the woods there, except, of course, oyster and other trutovika growing on rotting wood. This group of fungi have never and is not poisonous. By the way, China is exporting hundreds of tons of mushrooms of this group, without fear of complaint about the poisoning. Trutovika are only more or less useful and more or less tasty.
So, while it was winter and spring, elk were calmly eating from bird feeders bread and was happy. But as soon as went warm days, and from the land climbed mushrooms, animals immediately diversify the diet of all mushrooms, includingpale toadstools. And at this point, already more than a month bread is not fed. And they began to die one by one.
After careful research and identified the phenomenon of the impact of gluten on the mucosa of the small intestine of animals, making it permeable for toxins of protein nature with a sufficiently large size of the molecules, to which belong phallotoxin and amatoxin contained in pale toadstool. Moreover, it was found that the effect persists up to two months or more after the last ingestion of bread.
Unfortunately, the conclusions were made only for the rules of feeding elk in the hunting farms. Further that the academic idea is not gone. Me, as a budding nutritionist, this material is encouraged to further thinking and exploring new methods in the treatment of sick people.
We offer to your attention an essay is not the result of rigorous scientific research, claim to absolute validity of the findings. This is just an attempt of understanding and systematization of its experience gained over 43 years of extensive practice.

First, of course, consider the problem with known medical positions. Intolerance glutamatergic products in humans is called celiac disease. The problem is complicated. Studied for several decades.

   Note:the gluten content in wheat ranges from 7 to 15 percent , reaching 20 percent or more in the solid, particularly valued varieties. In oats, this figure is slightly higher than 1 percent. Rye and barley for the quantitative content of gluten are intermediate between oats and wheat.

   First the problem is described in 1888 S. Gee, who mentioned three main symptoms of disease: chronic diarrhea, progressive weight loss and a big flabby stomach. For a long time the cause of the disease remained unclear. In 1950 W. K. Dike with the staff determined that the external factor in causing celiac disease, gluten is the protein of wheat, rye, oats and barley.
Up to the present time, different terms are used to refer to
celiac disease, including non-tropical sprue (from Holland. sprue pins, as chair of the patient sometimes looks like foam),celiac disease, a disease Gee - Herter – Heubner.
The mechanism of development

The relationship of surface damage to the villous epithelium of the small intestine with the development of celiac disease for a long time, however, the final mechanism of disease development has not been elucidated. According to one theory, in celiac disease there is a lack of a specific intestinal enzyme that normally breaks down gluten (enzymatic theory). This leads to an accumulation in the lumen of the intestine unsplit products and toxic reactions on the surface of the mucous membrane. But today highlight this enzyme failed. For immuno-allergic theory, changes of the bowel wall is due to a number of immunological reactions that cause the metabolic products of gluten. Supporters of the receptor theory believe that in coeliac disease there is an altered sensitivity of receptors of epithelial cells to gluten. According to the viral theory, impaired digestion of gluten and modify properties of the mucous membrane of the small intestine caused by the negative effect of viruses on cells. But the combination of these theories and characteristics of the formation of the disease. Of considerable importance in the development of celiac disease have genetic factors. On average, 14% of parents of patients are suffering this disease in a latent form. Although the statement of this fact still does nothing for understanding the mechanism of the disease.
Clinical picture is sometimes very difficult to diagnose celiac disease, as initial symptoms are similar to inflammatory diseases of the digestive system in children. Great importance of serological diagnostics (blood), which is aimed at the early detection of specific antibodies of class IgM and IgA.
These tests are called GSE (Gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is an intestinal gluten tests. Performed endoscopy and mucosal biopsy of the small intestine. And sometimes a biopsy of the intestinal mucosa is repeated after intake of products with gluten. For the differential diagnosis with other fermentopathy prescribe a stress test with D-xylose and gluten free.Additional examination may be the examination of feces for evaluation of the degree of steatorrhea (fat in feces), which allows to differentiate a failure of the pancreas Determination of carbohydrate in the stool allows you to set the severity of lactase deficiency.
Unfortunately, currently there is no single sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of celiac disease. In connection with the difficulties of diagnosis in 1969 the European society for pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (ESPGAN) have been proposed such criteria for coeliac disease:

  1. Persistent intolerance to gliadin.

  2. In the active phase of the disease is atrophy of the mucous membrane of the small intestine.

  3. On the background of a diet without gluten (gliadin) the mucous membrane is restored.

  4. Re-introduction of gliadin in the diet leads to the development of mucosal atrophy of the small intestine...

Today, in addition to diagnosis of celiac disease, there are diagnosed with the syndrome of celiac disease. This is a condition clinically similar to celiac disease, but develops as a result of any acute illness, stress. However, this condition disappears after the action provoking factor.

Assuming that the aforementioned moose from hunting with celiac disease is not a priori suffered, I in 1981 he created his own diet, which excluded, among other things, glutenallergie products for 3 months. She gave an amazing result in a variety of cases.

Putting patients with diverse pathologies and complaints official diagnosis often as an incidental/: celiac disease and putting them on a gluten-free diet, I risked being the black sheep, because without a biopsy of the mucosa of the small intestine and subsequent histological analysis, the diagnosis colleagues always strive to be questioned. However, I have used, which is often used for suspected celiac disease, due to difficulties in accurate identification of the disease, method of treatment ex juvantibus, that is, if the treatment has no results, then the diagnosis is wrong.
Because usually it was not celiac disease, minor violations of the regime type of eating crumbs from the communion bread in the Church (by the way, in the city of Kaliningrad wishing to give gluten-free communion bread! Well, it can if you want!) did not prevent the emergence of any positive results. And the results didn't keep itself waiting. First disappeared complaints of dyspeptic symptoms and in longer term /in strict compliance with the gluten-free mode/ manifested in various, even unexpected positive effects. As an example, in many dermatological disorders, including psoriasis.
With the exception of there have been some cases of various allergies. With this I figured out after 1985, the year when I got a monograph Lessof "Clinical reactions to food."
It turned out thatgluttony effect gives the waste products of many worms. And going on a gluten-free regime, you should engage in regular deworming. Maybe even prophylactically, for not all worms we are aware of.
About constant contact with our organism of small doses of gluten, today I can say that already there are special tests for the quantitative content of gluten in certain products, medicines, etc. Determined by the minimum allowable amount of gluten in the daily diet, even for patients with celiac disease and not just controversial forms of celiac enteropathy. Fairly clear are allpossible ways of getting gluten in foods when the falsification thereof, or the reduction of technological control.

In addition, the majority of the population, it seems to me that suffering is likely not celiac disease, and

coeliac. What is the difference between these two diagnoses in my understanding? In fact, and in another case damage (disruption of permeability) of the mucous membrane of the small intestine occurs. And leads, after excessive ingestion glutamatergic products to a variety of consequences that only now began to worry the medical community worldwide (the wave of problems is growing dramatically, and not all can be attributed to environment).

However, if celiac disease patient is suffering from poisoning gluten directly, in the literal sense of the word, that, in the case of celiac enteropathy /I stress, in my understanding!/ the case does not go so far.

The permeability of the intestinal mucosa is increased, and allergic toxic reaction of cellular immunity /CI/ gluten is virtually nonexistent. Work compensatory mechanisms that are being stalled or absent in patients with celiac disease. But the increased permeability of the intestinal wall remains!
Every year in scattered publications scientific news and medical direction accumulates more and more facts indicating a causal link between the consumption of products from wheat flour and appearance of skin diseases, mental disorders, autoimmune problems, osteoporosis, etc., etc.
Incidentally, Italy, Australia, Germany and other countries have somewhere around 20 years if I'm not mistaken, there are large companies with millions of turnover, producing all kinds of gluten-free products. Cookies, pasta, even gluten-free flour instead of the gluten add carob pulp, performs a bonding function, but not damaging the intestines.
Products that are sold around the world, here in Ukraine, too. And it sold these products not only for celiacsbut for supporters just eating healthy. I'm not going to argue with the advocates of wheat by the significant content in the products of her essential b vitamins Deny the obvious technological amenities to the presence of gluten in baking and cooking products made of wheat flour generally stupid. But in pale toadstool has a lot of useful! And, well cooked and tasty. As confirmed by the many annual cases of poisoning among the population. However, since the relationship of grebes with a deadly danger not only proven, but has become a purposeful wanting it to taste a little bit.
As for glutamatergic products, they eat almost anything. Many hundreds of years. India, China and Japan – a separate issue.
To understand the situation, I would do a clear analogy: for hundreds of years people every day looking at the Sun on the horizon. And, by and large, all believed the Earth was flat and the center of the universe. And the Sun – a Holy entity, rotating around the Earth. Those who allow themselves to doubt, was waiting for the unenviable fate of Giordano Bruno.
But come the 18th, and then 19th, 20th century and those who persisted in this interpretation, have raised a laugh...
I think that bread will be the same.

For various reasons, but certain steps are being taken. Yet, as an incident in the scale of the whole country. From 1 January 2007 in Ukraine entered into force a new law on child nutrition. On the territory of Ukraine was prohibited for sale and use formula for newborns, containing certain additives, including wheat flour. Ukraine was the first and only country in the world that have banned wheat flour in the diet of children. 16 Jul 2009 the law began to be implemented. In fact for powerall newborn children is recommended without any - or little-gljuteinovye   mixture. Oatmeal is not forbidden. Innovation met misunderstanding among the medical community and confusion for the majority of the population. Glad to only those parents of newborns who were aware that the consumption of wheat flour healthy babies in the short term can lead to allergization. But the joy was short-lived. In March 2010, the new government of Ukraine has cancelled the law, citing his creation of a bureaucratic /?/ the mistakes of the previous government.In General, bread around the head. Well, can not be forced. Apparently, for these revolutions, the time has not come yet.

And more about gluten. India are in Punjab. Corn gives up to 4 harvests a year. And, almost all goes for export , for two reasons: first, it has a lot of protein (same with gluten) and it is a very valuable solid varieties, convenient for the production of any "kurupelit", therefore it is a good earnings for residents; second, the local indigenous population it does not eat, preferring to Fig. Of course, someone in India is eating bread from glutamatergic cereal, and bakes pies from them. But, by and large, this is the exception, not the rule.
Me in India visit did not have a chance. But I guess, again by analogy to determine the temperature of the surface of the Sun, it is not necessary to go there with a thermometer. I don't think you want to spend in India, Japan or China a referendum to find out what kind of cereal people prefer!
And another interesting observation. Wheat is known to people several thousand years, the grass was prolific, easy to store, delicious. Consumed in Europe widely. But, for me, for example, it is striking that in those, well, very ancient times, in Egypt wheat bread (most bread, and not bread rolls in our understanding, because the cakes of such flour almost kept viable!) baked from flour crushingsprouted and dried wheat. Thereby dramatically decreasing, to almost zero, depending on the extent of germination, the amount of gluten in wheat grains. And the inhabitants of Egypt were considered the most healthy in the ancient world.
In the Bible, in the book of revelation there is mention of the number of the Beast. This is something that is extremely scary, dangerous, difficult to define, hostile to man. Moreover, it is something for people in mortal danger.
Assuming our current knowledge about the dangers of consumption glutamatergic products and not to be afraid of the allegory, then the picture below might well be called the "face of the Beast."

The known history of mankind is filled with almost continuous wars and countless atrocities. On the accumulated recent data, the bread that is eaten in Europe for millennia(!) could not awaken the best human qualities inherent in the individual genes, cruelty, instability, unmotivated aggression, vandalism.

And, although not the same gluten it all mixed in, however, innumerable ordinary, somatic and mental diseases which causes bread or extremely hinders recovery from these. Althoughexplicit poison the bread is not! The problem is disguised so thoroughly that the very concept of "bread" became a synonym for valuable, lifesaving product.
Today on the side of the bread to death are traditions and baking company. This, of course, very serious, but surmountable obstacle for the thinking person!
I repeat. Four kinds of cereals – wheat, rye, barley and oatscontains different amount of such component like gluten or gluten-free. "This is a mixture consisting of amino acids, glycopeptides, acidic peptides, dializirutm and mediasizename peptides and enzymes with different properties, which are defined and the main protein chain and attached side chains of non-protein conjugates, and therefore different physical and physico-chemical properties. Perhaps, therefore, not surprising that identification it is not yet implemented" /see the monograph under the editorship of Lessof, translation into Russian language, publishing house "Medicine", Moscow, 1986 "Clinical reactions to food" /.
In this monograph is very much interesting and at the thoughtful reading of even unexpected for everyone interested in tactics of power, but also strategy!                                                                      
In the 25 years since the publication in Russian of this book, radical changes on the basis of the published materials I found and was not. Can be bad looking...
According to my personal clinical observations that a single dose of a few grams glutentergamemode product /subject to prior months of absolute abstinence from glutamatergic products!/ after a couple of hourssensitive increases the permeability of the walls of a thin intestine to large molecules of various components of putrefaction and fermentation in it, compared to the previous state. And this new state of the intestinal wall, slowly returning to the starting line, lasts about two months (!). Remember moose...
Accordingly, a significant proportion of the products of putrefaction and fermentation in the intestine enters via the portal vein to the liver, creating additional toxic load on the body.             Interesting effect cure for allergies – it definitely manifests itself is through two – two and a half months after the last piece eaten glutentergamemode product.
(The withdrawal within two or three months of this toxic load can explain the

miraculous clinical effects of transition to a rigid gluten-free diet for all sorts of allergies, hepatitis, gastrointestinal diseases, Central nervous system, etc., etc.). Parallel to this process, a number of large antigenic complexes, possibly by persible or passive penetration /and maybe something else?/ slowly traveling through the body, putting off in different places, respectively, genetic characteristics, the influence of various environmental factors. In General, the situation is like playing Russian roulette, with the imminent unpredictable damage to both functional and organic nature...

The list of diseases, which is dependent on the compliance /non-compliance or/ gluten-free mode is really great. As a fairly unpleasant and at the same time, often can cause many types of allergies, hepatitis, osteoporosis, fractures ending in a fairly innocuous crash, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia, various mental disorders, many skin diseases, autoimmune diabetes mellitus of the first type, many types of cancer. The list is long.But I would like to return to the prevention of this nightmare.
I believe that the combination of the following factors: correct and comfortable separation of power with domination, if possible, raw foods, therapeutic and preventive fasting, strict gluten free regime, in combination with symptomatic pharmaceutical intervention and other well-known hygienic methods allows you really to keep a certain purity of the internal environment of the body. It seems that this approach to health as effective as possible at this stage of development of our knowledge about the world.
Practice allows you to divide the methods applied in the pursuit of a healthy lifestyle into two categories: tactical and strategic. In my opinion, strategic methods should include, in order of priority: a gluten-free regime, fasting, raw food diet.Further there are: no refined foods, "gentle" vegetarianism (with the exception of not all products of animal origin, and only killer!), competent schedule of food groups during the day (not to be confused with the separate meals for separate food is available gluten-free when mode looks not so mandatory, because the job of the liver is sensitive lightweight!).
By the way, the stark effect of the fasting, held in a variety of both therapeutic and surgical diseases, in my opinion, is due to the stimulation of proliferation of stem cells diffusely scattered in all tissues, and change "exit" to the already mentioned large antigenic complexes deposited in various parts of the body. The so-called naturopaths call them "slags" or "dirt".
 What are refined products? What is the raw food diet?
 Refined products are products artificially cleared of most natural components in favor of one who, for whatever reason, at this stage scientific and consumer concepts considered to be the main, most important component of the food product. For example: refining of raw sugar to white state crystalline sucrose, even when the rats (!) avoid to consume this wonder food industry!But, artificially created deficit in refined product necessary components kompensiruet due to special drugs, which, incidentally, is very difficult and not always available.
Another such example can be refined vegetable oil. Of course, it can be stored for years /in case of any force majeure/ unlike conventional crude, but it lacks many key elements. However, sometimes there are trace amounts of gasoline used for the extraction of fat from sunflower seeds in the refining process.
  A raw food diet is a diet exclusively of raw fruits, vegetables and nuts. The method is well-lit in the books Shatalova G., Chuprun A. etc. So I would not like to repeat.

And the question is, what else contains gluten, add a little new to the already presented material. In whole grains corn gluten contained in the seed embryo, but because, in the production process of corn grits and flour, the germ of the grains due to the technological features are separated, corn flour and cereal derived not artisanal, and it is industrially, practically do not contain gluten. More accurate, quantitative data from germ of the corn grain in recent years, I, unfortunately, did not come across. By the way, it's helpful to know that before the arrival of Europeans to the Americas, the Mayan and Aztec strictly adhere to the prohibition on the consumption of corn harvest this year. Corn on the cob for

the lost technology than it was treated, was transferred to and kept in special vaults for a few years. Perhaps it was due to a decrease in gluten in the germ? Unfortunately, it seems that this mystery has gone.

I must say that the list glutamatergic products in recent years has expanded considerably, as wheat flour, and often powder, pure gluten is added to many types of sausage, cheese (!), ketchup, different sauces, pastry, etc. In which a priori, according to GOST should not be flour!
How much gluten in the normal diet and how much it takes to cause damage in celiac disease?
In the usual diet contains roughly 10-40 grams of gluten per day. This figure is based on the amount of gluten in the average slice of white bread, which contain 4 to 8 grams of gluten (10% gluten by weight), and the amount of gluten in a serving of pasta, which is usually 4 - 6 grams of gluten (11% gluten by weight). According to Italian researchers, the minimum amount of gluten that leads to damage of the small intestine, in coeliac patients is 50 milligrams a day. That's about the amount of gluten that is contained in 1/100 parts of a piece of bread! Biopsy in this study shows increase the number mirabiliandia lymphocytes - one of the earliest symptoms. Changes were recorded at each of the 10 patients (children) after 28 days.
Original source:
By the way, people not suffering from celiac disease, a damaging amount of gluten is the same! But there are compensatory mechanisms. And fast, imminent catastrophe passes them by. Trouble accumulate gradually and forced to wait quite a long time. However, sooner or later (it depends on human genetics, little or much he eats glutamatergic products, how to eat bread, "that sort of written" etc.) problems appear.

The sensitivity and specificity of determining the blood levels of various antibodies in celiac disease (in adults):



















Help to understand the complexity of the problem.



Fasting is known to man since time immemorial. But, only in the experiments of the last decades of regular fasting evidence has extended the life of laboratory mice by 40-70%.
With regard to the experimental base at the prolongation of life with gluten free mode, the fact is that issues with gluten free food, began to be developed at least 30 years ago. And, while the experiments related to the possible extension of life of mice, observing a gluten-free regime, I have not heard. Ay, gerontologists!
Of course, transferring results from mice to human is not entirely correct, but, knowing how the presence of gluten can shorten a person's life, you might want to think: if we don't shorten, it may extend?
By and large, most of humanity until recently, the time of the advent of accelerated communication, wheat and rye in food is not used. And in Sanskrit, wheat all sounds like: food "stupid people". This is a very soft translation. And Sanskrit – the language is very figurative!
     P.S. Many followers of various religions, including Christianity, consider, and think the person at conception are given in support of the seven small demons. They do not depart from us until we die and are constantly trying to seduce us on a variety of improper conduct – from minor sins to crimes on a planetary scale. The ultimate goal of these entities is clear – to destroy the soul of God's children in favor of the enemy of the human race. Their methods are cunning and resourceful.As they reach serious success in the capture of our soul and mind webs of lies and vices, each of them attempts to transfer power to his superior, devil category. With each such shift as to free his soul from the shackles of growing disastrous influence becomes increasingly difficult... But we must try. And, though they say that good intentions pave the road to hell, but to heaven on the backs will not drive! None of this work will not make. If we, of course, understand.
  Russian scientist K. A. Timiryazev, called the loaf of well baked bread the greatest achievement of the human mind. Perhaps the expression "Woe from wit" in this case sounds urgent of all...

And finally, an interesting question arises: can we eat bread, glutenallergie

products and to derive no harm, but good? Oddly enough, the answer is YES! However, with one subtle caveat. ALL of the protein gluten should still be in the stomach is hydrolyzed down to amino acid residues. That is, gluten will cease to be. Thus, when getting food bolus in the small intestine there will be no insidious gluten, but there will be a variety of amino acids, it is suitable for the construction of our cells. And we, as Vakula of the famous works of Gogol, swept astride a horned devil to Petersburg and back, get from bread undoubted benefit. However, it is possible, most likely, only when eating black bread with water and then, in a theoretically ideal case. And, of course, not in the use of sandwiches and other delights of cooking.No wonder they say that God created food and the devil cooks. So, once inforce majeure, and that should not be forgotten.

P. S. recently in Ukraine (again in Ukraine!) happened out of the ordinary event. Was adopted the current law on gluten, really important for the health of the people:

    7 Feb 2012 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted in the first reading the draft law No. 8493 dated 13 may 2011 on amendments to article 38 of the law of Ukraine "On safety and quality of food" (on informing citizens about the absence of gluten in foods). "For" the decision voted 353 deputies at minimum necessary 226, RBC reports.

The bill is supposed to inform buyers about the absence in foods of gluten that appears on the food label that says "gluten free". Thus, in the absence of food is considered gluten-free if the gluten content in the food product does not exceed 20 ppm (mg/1000 g) of the total weight of the product in the packaging unit.
According to the authors of the bill, today in Ukraine, according to preliminary estimates live about 500 thousand people suffering from celiac nediagnostirovannoe (read: coeliac, exhibiting a tendency to move in the initial stage of celiac disease!), which is a substantial decline in the quality of life of the sick person, directly reduces efficiency, and in some cases leading to its complete loss, as well as factor in the development of severe life-threatening complications.

the author of the essay:         MD   Artemov  E. M.
Nutritionist, diabetology, acupuncturist.
Born in Odessa in 1949.
In 1973 he graduated from the Odessa medical Institute. N. I. Pirogov And. specialty medical business. She has since been working as a General practitioner. Combines nutrition, Zhen-Tszyu therapy, the classical pharmacy.



Крупы без глютена.

На нашем рынке, в магазинах «здорового питания» появляются все новые продукты, в том числе крупы. Какие из них можно (и нужно) употреблять больным целиакией, а какие нельзя? Ответы в таблице и материалах журнала «Гастрономъ» № 2 (73)  за февраль 2008 г.

Примечание доктора Артёмова Э.М.: категорический запрет на эти продукты касается только больных целиакией. Что касается пациентов с глютеновой энтеропатией и просто людей, желающих вести здоровый и комфортный образ жизни то, в тех случаях, когда продукт из-за небольшого содержания глютена для этой категории людей допустим, он выделен зелёным цветом.

Глютен и его воздействие на наш организм. (Краткий фрагмент из "Эссе о хлебе").

хлеб глютен

Хочу предложить тему безглютенового  питания как одного из важнейших  компонентов правильного питания вообще и  фактора, резко продлевающего активную  жизнь в частности.

Суть сводится к следующему. В четырех  видах злаковых – пшенице, ржи, ячмене и овсе содержится в разном количестве такой компонент как клейковина или глютен. «Это – смесь, состоящая из аминокислот, гликопептидов, кислых пептидов, диализируемых и недиализируемых пептидов и ферментов с различными свойствами, которые определяются и основной белковой цепью, и присоединенными боковыми цепями небелковых конъюгатов, а поэтому разных по физическим и физико-химическим свойствам. Возможно, поэтому и неудивительно, что идентификация его пока не осуществлена» /см. монографию под ред. Лессофа, перевод на русский язык, издательство «Медицина» Москва, 1986 «Клинические реакции на пищу» /.

Эссе о хлебе

  Медицинская справка:  «…   Глютен содержится в продукте, который образуется из муки злаков после выделения из нее крахмала. Этот остаточный продукт представляет собой смесь множества белков, которые различаются по их растворимости и возможности экстрагирования. В разных злаках этот компонент имеет разное название: в пшенице – глютен (глиадин), в овсе – авенин, в ячмене – гордеин, во ржи – секалинин.   

  Бог и дьявол, свет и тьма, жизнь и смерть, пища и голод – классические примеры закона единства и борьбы  противоположностей, одного из важнейших законов мироздания.
  Я посвящаю это эссе хлебу, символу процветания, а именно, главной его составляющей части – пшенице. Злаку, дающему силы и жизнь, но, как оказалось сегодня, исподволь несущему болезни и преждевременную смерть. Эффект ящика Пандоры – это эффект от съеденного ломтя хлеба.

  «Великая научная идея редко внедряется путём постепенного убеждения и обращения своих противников. В действительности дело происходит так, что оппоненты постепенно вымирают, а растущее поколение с самого начала осваивается с новой идеей».
        Макс Планк